trattato di maastricht

With a view to ensuring that the dynamic of the European Single Market respect certain minimum social and employment protections, these allow the Council of Ministers to approve relevant proposals from the European Commission on the basis of a qualified majority rather than unanimous consent. Rather there are "a series of tentative indications for Community action in a document full of imprecise concepts: 'sufficiently', 'better achieved', 'what is necessary', 'to achieve the objectives', subjective notions which leave the way wide open for interpretation or practical developments. In establishing the European Union the Maastricht Treaty amended the treaties that had established the European Communities in the 1950s. Weg ohne Wiederkehr. La parte finale del trattato di Maastricht "il vincolo del 3%" (self.SamueleDelPapa) submitted 1 hour ago by SamueleDelPapa. Advertising. Il trattato sull'Unione europea è stato firmato a Maastricht alla presenza del Presidente del Parlamento europeo, on. Expansion plans may also be in jeopardy", "The Maastricht Debate: Major 'driven to confidence factor': Commons Exchanges: Treaty issue 'cannot fester any longer, 1990–1992: Britain and the politics of the European exchange rate mechanism, Conflicting Authorities: States, Currency Markets and the ERM Crisis of 1992–93, "A Practitioner's Guide to the Maastricht Treaty". "[45] Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg, conceded that consensus around the principle of subsidiarity had been possible only because "it conceals different interpretations". The 2007 Lisbon amends and incorporates the Maastricht Treaty as the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Against the background of the end of the Cold War and the re-unification of Germany, and in anticipation of accelerated globalisation, the treaty negotiated tensions between member states seeking deeper integration and those wishing to retain greater national control. [6] In the cases of Denmark, France and Ireland this required referenda. Unresolved in the Treaty is the question of their access to social rights. In secondo luogo il trattato stabiliva l'avvio di una politica estera e per la sicurezza comuni. Maastricht Signature Netherlands.jpg 1,358 × 682; 61 KB Maastricht Signature Spain.jpg 1,004 × 491; 33 KB Maastricht Sinature Portugal.jpg 1,140 × 551; 45 KB 0107 - 0108 Gazzetta ufficiale n. The United Kingdom was not a party of the Agreement on Social Policy and secured an "opt out" from the protocol. In particolare il debito pubblico di un paese non può superare il 60% del suo P.I.L. Titles III and IV amend the treaties establishing the ECSC and Euratom to complete their absorption into the structure of European Community. [40] Yet it is clear that nothing is to be construed as systematically constraining the foreign or defence policies of the individual Member States. Title II, Provisions Amending the Treaty Establishing the European Economic Community, reformulates the EEC as the central "pillar" of the Union. [8] Concessions secured by the end of year in Edinburgh including, critically, the same exemption secured by Britain from the single currency (Denmark would not have to give up the krone), allowed for a second referendum. It creates the European Union. Tizzano Antonio. The treaties (primary legislation) are the basis or ground rules for all EU action. The "foundations of co-decision in the Maastricht Treaty" have led to the "trialogues" involving the European Parliament, Council and Commission, which have become standard legislative practice.[44]. The EU inherited many of its present responsibilities from, and the membership of the European Communities (EC), which were founded in the 1950s in the spirit of the Schuman Declaration. L'Unione era fondata sulle Comunità europee e sostenuta da politiche e forme di cooperazione previste dal trattato sull'Unione europea. [34], In ruling out any role for the future ECB and euro in national, or Union-coordinated, reflationary policies Maastricht affirmed what by the late 1980s was the general economic-policy orthodoxy within the Community. [35], These constraints were to become the focus of political scrutiny and public protest in the new-century European debt crisis. But in making it an explicit constitutional principle the Maastricht Treaty opened up "debates about whether this strengthened the states, regions or local government vis-à-vis the EU or vice versa". Treaty on European Union (OJ C 191, 29.7.1992, pp. This groups the traditional activities, working and decision-making procedures of the 3 original EU organisations: Common foreign and security policy (2nd pillar), Cooperation on justice and home affairs (3rd pillar). [38] The Treaty, however, proposed no significant departures in these areas. Operation Self-Deceit: New Documents Shine Light on Euro Birth Defects, "The IMF & the European Economic and Monetary Union - Factsheet", "Madrid European Council (12/95): Conclusions", "European Labour in a Single Market: '1992' and the Implications of Maastricht", "Wolfgang Schäuble: "Europe will only work if the rules are the same for smaller and bigger member states, "The Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties. L’accordo comprende 252 articoli nuovi, 17 protocolli e 31 dichiarazioni. e i testi collegati. Word index: 1-300, 301-600, 601-900, More. Introduction to the Jacques Delors Colloquium 1991: "Subsidiarity: the challenge of change" organised by the European Institute of Public Administration at Maastricht, 21 and 22 March 1991, p. 32. Provided that all Member States ratify, it rules that the Treaty should come into force on 1 January 1993. Greek finance minister Yanis Varoufakis credited the Maastricht criteria with framing of a union of deflation and unemployment. It introduced procedures that made the European Parliament "co-legislator with the Council of Ministers" and have since have since been developed and extended to nearly all areas where the Council decides by qualified majority voting. However, the price of German cooperation was widely perceived as German dictation of the terms. Bacaredda-Atzeni di Cagliari – Hinter der Fassade ihrer deutsch-französischen Freundschaft haben Helmut Kohl und François Mitterrand erbittert um Einheit und Euro gerungen, wie jetzt neue Dokumente aus dem Kanzleramt zeigen. Fact Sheets on the European Union - 2020", "The European Security and Defence Identity: NATO and the WEU (19 April 1999)", "What happens to our neutrality when the chips are down? Il Trattato di Maastricht ha creato le premesse per la moneta unica europea, l’euro. Ventotto anni fa è stato firmato il Trattato di Maastricht.La sera del 7 febbraio 1992, nei Paesi Bassi, sulle rive della Mosa, i dodici membri della Cee siglato il trattato che dà vita all’Unione Europea. The treaty was signed on 25 March 1957 by Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany, and it came into force on 1 January 1958. Beginning in 2009 with Greece, the governments of several Euro-zone countries (Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Cyprus) declared themselves unable to repay or refinance their government debt or to bail out over-indebted banks without assistance from third parties. In consequence of the Dutch Presidency of the Council of the European Communities during the previous six months of negotiation, the Treaty was signed in the Netherlands, in the city of Maastricht. MAIN DOCUMENT. Il Trattato di Maastricht introdusse anche il concetto di cittadinanza europea, di cui godono tutti coloro che possiedono la cittadinanza di uno Stato membro. The resulting compromise faced what was to be the first in a series of EU treaty ratification crises. I parametri di Maastricht o criteri di convergenza sono i requisiti economici e finanziari che gli Stati dell'Unione europea devono soddisfare per l'ingresso nell'Unione economica e monetaria dell'Unione europea (UEM). "[33], Seeming to further preclude any possibility of the single-currency banking system being used to regulate European financial markets in support of expansionary – potentially inflationary – policies, the Treaty expressly prohibits the ECB or any Member State central extending "overdraft facilities or any other type of credit facility" to "Community institutions or bodies, central governments, regional, local or other public authorities, other bodies governed by public law, or public undertakings of Member States", or the purchase from them debt instruments. In protest against the social-policy opt out, Labour opposed, while "anti-federalists" split the governing Conservatives. Attraverso l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, la creazione di un'unione economica e monetaria e l'estensione dell'integrazione europea a nuovi settori, la Comunità entra in una dimensione politica. Our main task is to maintain price stability in the euro area and so preserve the purchasing power of the single currency. Il Trattato di Maastricht, il Trattato C.E. Prime Minister John Major was able to face down his "Maastricht Rebels" only by tying ratification to the survival of the government in a vote of confidence.[11]. [17], Germany had considered a Deutschmark zone extending only to her more immediate and convergent neighbours: the Benelux countries and possibly Denmark. On 16 September 1992 the British government had been forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), after a failed and costly attempt to keep the pound above its mandated exchange rate limit. Per aderire al Trattato di Maastricht nei diversi paesi è stato indetto un referendum 20. This publication reproduces the text of the Treaty on European Union, as signed in Maastricht on 7 February 1992. Under the name " Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union ", it remains one of the two most important treaties in what is … [18] But when asked in 1990 by German Chancellor Helmut Kohl to agree to German re-unification, French President François Mitterrand accepted only in the event Germany would abandon the Deutsche Mark and adopt a common currency. 4. nominal long-term interest rates no more than 2 percentage points higher than in the three Member States with the lowest inflation. La cittadinanza europea assegna il diritto di "Failing a Council decision", which would require unanimity, a Member State is free to take such action as it considers "necessary". "[24] Commonly known as the Maastricht Criteria,[25][26] these obligations represented the performance thresholds for member states to progress toward the third stage of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the adoption the common currency (designated at the 1995 Madrid European as the Euro).[27]. From Libreria Oreste Gozzini snc (Firenze, FI, Italy) AbeBooks Seller Since 01 October 2009 Seller Rating. Consolidated version of the Treaty on European Union, Presidency of the Council of the European Communities, Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Treaty establishing the European Defence Community, Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, "EC Leaders at Sea Over Danish Rejection: Europe: Vote against Maastricht Treaty blocks the march to unity. 21. Association Member: ILAB; Quantity available: 1. Officially known as the Treaty on European Union, the Maastricht Treaty marked the beginning of ‘a new stage in the process of creating an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe’ by giving the previous communities a political dimension. The text has been produced for documentary purposes and does not involve the responsibility of the institutions. The four "convergence criteria", as detailed in attached protocols,[28][29] impose control over inflation, public debt and the public deficit, exchange rate stability and domestic interest rates. Since the end of World War II, sovereign European countries have entered into treaties and thereby co-operated and harmonised policies (or pooled sovereignty) in an increasing number of areas, in the so-called European integration project or the construction of Europe (French: la construction européenne). – Der Kanzler öffnet die Akten über die deutsche Einheit. 1-112). Use, Other sites managed by the Publications Office, travel and live freely anywhere in the EU, Portal of the Publications Office of the EU. Via Trattato di Maastricht 10 15067 Novi Ligure - AL - Italy. sottoscritto il 7 febbraio 1992 dai 12 Stati membri della Comunità Europea nella città di Maastricht ed entrato in vigore il 1º novembre 1993, dopo la ratificazione dei Parlamenti degli Stati membri, il Trattato di Maastricht amplia i poteri della CE; fissa i tempi e i modi dell'unificazione economica e politica dell'Europa; decide la realizzazione di una banca centrale. In these and other areas which do not fall within Community's "exclusive competence", in accordance with "the principle of subsidiarity" action is to be taken only if, "by reason of the scale or effects", the objectives cannot be more "efficiently" achieved by the Member States themselves.[4]. Progetto Curricolare di Cittadinanza e Costituzione a.s. 2016-2017, classe 4A Liceo Scientifico Capoterra - I.I.S. Maastricht, Trattato di Trattato istitutivo dell’Unione Europea (UE). This aims to provide the public with a high level of safety by: This gives every national of an EU country the right to: It was signed on 7 February 1992 and entered into force on 1 November 1993. A.Strutture dell'Unione Con l'istituzione dell'Unione europea, il trattato di Maastricht ha segnato una nuova tappa nel processo volto a creare «un'unione sempre più stretta tra i popoli dell'Europa». 1992, dai rappresentanti dei governi dei 12 Paesi membri della CEE, entrò in vigore il 1° nov. 1993. Title V and VI extend existing intergovernmental consultations on foreign-policy, security and defence matters, and on "cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs." The Treaty rules that "every person holding the nationality of a Member State shall be a citizen of the Union". Il trattato di Maastricht si poneva come obiettivo da raggiungere entro il 1999 la creazione di una moneta comune unica (euro) e di una Banca centrale europea. In both cases, Member States are to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]",[5] but otherwise cooperate independently of Community institutions. Il Trattato di Maastricht introdusse inoltre il concetto di cittadinanza europea, di cui godono tutti i cittadini degli stati membri dell'Unione. December 12 1991: Maastricht Treaty hailed as great leap forward despite Major concessions By David Gow in Bonn, Paul Webster in Paris and John Palmer in … [31], The Treaty dedicates the EU central banking system to price stability, and gives it "a degree of independence from elected officials" greater even "than that of its putative model, the German Bundesbank". United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs. These criteria in turn dictated the mandate of the European System of Central Banks comprising the national central banks, but to include the prospective currency-issuing European Central Bank. [41] This, in part, was a concession to United Kingdom which continued to insist on the sufficiency of the North Atlantic alliance (supported by the neutral, non-aligned, Member States, the Republic of Ireland and Austria, at the 1997 Amsterdam summit the UK prevented a merger of the WEU and the EU),[42][43]. Il Trattato di Maastricht. [32] The commitment to monetary union and the convergence criteria denied member states the resort to currency deflation to ease balance-of-payments constraints on domestic spending, and left labour market "flexibility" as the only means of coping with asymmetric economic shocks. Sterling's release from the ERM was then followed in the UK by an economic recovery and a significant fall in unemployment. The Maastricht Treaty, concluded in 1992 between the 12 member states of the European Communities, is the foundation treaty of the European Union (EU). In several of these areas, the Treaty seeks to enhance the "democratic functioning" of the institutions by conceding the directly-elected European Parliament rights not only of consultation but also of co-decision. Trattato di Maastricht Trattato sull’Unione Europea firmato a Maastricht il 7 febbraio 1992 dagli allora 12 Paesi membri della Comunità Europea (Belgio, Danimarca, Francia, Germania, Gran Bretagna, Grecia, Irlanda, Italia, Lussemburgo, Paesi Bassi, Portogallo, Spagna), entrato in vigore il 1° novembre 1993. Although these were widely seen to presage a "federal Europe", the focus of constitutional debate shifted to the later 2007 Treaty of Lisbon. establishing rules and controls for the EU’s external borders; organising criminal and civil judicial cooperation; provide multilateral surveillance of this coordination; respect financial and budgetary discipline. EU legislation is divided into primary and secondary. Trattato sull'Unione europea (TUE) / Trattato di Maastricht Il trattato sull'Unione europea, noto anche come il trattato di Maastricht, e le firme dei 12 ministri degli Affari esteri e delle Finanze degli Stati membri. This encompasses 3 separate strands (so-called pillars): cooperation between EU governments on justice and home affairs. The new provisions called on governments to "inform and consult one another within the Council [of Ministers]]",[39] but otherwise continued cooperation on the basis of intergovernmental liaison outside of the EC and its institutions. petition the European Parliament and address any complaints of EU administrative malpractice to the. There is a real "moral hazard" in allowing Member States to accumulate higher debts within the Eurozone – higher debts which, ultimately, have no relationship to higher growth. Among its most prominent innovations, the treaty: provides the legal basis for 6 new EU common policies; safeguard the EU’s common values, fundamental interests and independence; strengthen the security of the EU and its member countries; preserve peace and international security in line with, develop and consolidate democracy and the. Jacques Santer, Prime Minister of Luxembourg. In Britain the Maastricht rebellion drew on the experience of Black Wednesday. Annexed to the Treaty is a Protocol, and an Agreement, on Social Policy. Il Trattato di Maastricht e la Comunità Europea Il Trattato di Maastricht, firmato il 7 Febbraio 1992 ed entrato in vigore il 1 Novembre 1993, è l' atto fondativo dell'Unione Europea. Other amendments create the office of European Ombudsman, expand the Structural Fund assistance to the poorer EU regions; and broaden Community competencies in education, culture, public health, consumer protection, trans-European networks, industry and the environment. Cooperation on law enforcement, criminal justice, asylum, and immigration and other judicial matters was being pursued under the 1990 Schengen Agreement and Convention. In September 1992, a referendum in France narrowly supported the ratification of the treaty, with 50.8% in favour. [19][20], Since being forced by speculation against the franc to abandon the centrepiece of his Socialist programme in 1983, a job creating reflation,[21] Mitterrand had been committed to drawing Germany into a currency partnership. The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank of the 19 European Union countries which have adopted the euro. Having "resolved to continue the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe", the Treaty proposes "further steps to be taken in order to advance European integration"[2] under seven titles. Coordination in foreign and security policy had taken place since the beginning of the 1970s under the name of European Political Cooperation (EPC), which had been first written into the treaties by the 1987 Single European Act. [36], Taking issue in defence of the Maastricht criteria, German finance minister Wolfgang Schäuble argued that "the old way to stimulate growth will not work." By the time of their own ratifications debates, France and Denmark also found themselves under pressure in foreign exchange markets, their currencies trading close to the bottom of their ERM bands. The twelve members of the European Communities signing the Treaty on 7 February 1992 were Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. increased legislative powers for the European Parliament; more majority voting when EU governments adopt legislation. Amendments incorporate (as detailed in attached protocols) a staged progression toward monetary union including the price-stability-first criteria for adoption of the single currency and for the operations of the prospective European Central Bank (ECB). Sceptics note that the Treaty offers no legally actionable definition of subsidiarity. Formally the Treaty on European Union, it announced "a new stage in the process of European integration"[1] chiefly in provisions for a shared European citizenship, for the eventual introduction of a single currency, and (with less precision) for common foreign and security policies. Expression index: 1-400, 401-800, 801-1200, More. The Treaty noted that it should be "ratified by the High Contracting Parties in accordance with their respective constitutional requirement". As an implicit presumption subsidiarity may have been considered a check upon the supranational development of the EEC. Tasso d'inflazione non superiore dell'1,5% rispetto a quello dei tre Paesi più virtuosi. Phone +39 0143 76669 Fax +39 0143 143 2230 contact/selling point in The Netherlands: Mr Armand Diets GSM +31(0)622450250 Secondary legislation – which includes regulations, directives and decisions – are derived from the principles and objectives set out in the treaties. [15] The ERM was the centrepiece of the European Monetary System (EMS), set up on voluntary basis in 1978 to reduce the "barrier" that exchange-rate volatility presented for intra-Community commerce (and for the management of payments under the Common Agricultural Policy). On 18 May 1993, Maastricht Treaty was endorsed by a vote of 56.7%.[9]. This has been described as a "reversed Keynesianism": macro-economic policy not to secure a full-employment level of demand, but, through the restrictive control of monetary growth and public expenditure, to maintain price and financial market stability; micro economic policy, not to engineer income and price controls in support of fiscal expansion, but to encourage job creation by reducing barriers to lower labour costs. Title I, Common Provisions, establishes the European Union (EU) on the foundation of the three, already partially merged, European Communities: the European Economic Community (EEC), the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). Maastricht is an ambitious treaty. Ratificato dagli allora dodici paesi delle Comunità Europee, specifica i criteri politici ed economici per poter aderire all'Unione. Insert free text, CELEX number or descriptors. Dunkelste Stunden. Die Dokumente zeigen: Frankreich hat das schnelle Ende der Mark erzwungen. L'Unione disponeva di un quadro istituzionale unico, composto dal Consiglio, dal Pa… Inflation at a rate no more than 1.5 percentage points higher than the average of the three best performing (lowest inflation) Member States; 2. a "budgetary position" that avoids "excessive" government deficits defined in ratios to gross domestic product (GDP) of greater than 3% for annual deficits and 60% for gross government debt; 3. the exchange rate of the national currency within "the normal fluctuation margins by the exchange-rate mechanism of the European Monetary System without For every endeavour it poses the question of whether national or Community policy is the most effective means, and elevates simple utility above any deference to national or local feeling. In Ireland, the Eleventh Amendment of the Constitution, allowing the state to ratify the Treaty, was approved in a referendum held on 18 June 1992 with the support of 69.1% of votes cast. In base ai cosiddetti “parametri di Maastricht” (dal nome della città olandese in cui il 7 febbraio 1992 fu firmato il trattato istitutivo dell’Unione Europea), i Paesi che intendono adottare l’Euro come propria divisa, devono offrire delle garanzie su stabilità dei prezzi, situazione delle finanze pubbliche, tassi di interesse a lungo termine e tasso di cambio. severe tensions for at least the last two years"; and. Soft cover. Save for Later. [16] From the beginning of 1990, high German interest rates, set by the Bundesbank to counteract inflationary impact of the expenditure on German reunification, caused significant stress across the whole of the ERM. Political debate continued as to who should have access to public services and welfare systems funded by taxation.[14]. [7], In the first Danish referendum, on 2 June 1992, the treaty was rejected by a margin of 50.7% to 49.3%. In time, the tension between the transferred worker as "a mobile unit of production" contributing to the success of the single market, and the reality of the Community migrants as individuals, seeking to exercise "a personal right" to live and work in another state for their own, and their families', welfare, asserted itself.

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